PPT On Networking

Published in: Networking
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    Aditya

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List the advantages of networking. How the internet works. Network Terminology

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    Communication and Networking Concepts
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    What is a Computer Network? Two or more computers or communications devices connected by transmission media and channels and guided by a set of rules for communication purposes that allow users to communicate with each other and share applications and data. Hardware: Media: •Computer • Cab le •Network card • Wire •Routers •Microwave •Modem Components of a Computer Network Software: •Network OS •Utilities ... 2 Network Design: .Logical layout •Physical layout
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    Advantages of NETWORK Share Resource Reliability or security through Redundancy Cost factor Central Storage of Data Security through authorization Share storage • Improve Communications
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    Application of NETWORK Sharing Access to remote database Facilitates Communication
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    Evolution of NETWORK Evolution of networking started way back 1969 by the development of Internet,
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    ARPANET, NSFnet, Internet ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork).• In 1969, ARPANET was started to connect computers at US defense & different universities. NSFnet (National Science Foundation Network) . In 1980 NSFnet was started to make a high- capacity network to be used strictly for academic and engineering research. In 1990 the internetworking of Internet NSFnet and other private ARPANET networks resulted into Internet.
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    Internet Functioning protocol is a set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. The communication protocol used by internet is TCP/IP. The TCP ( Transmission Control Protocol) part is responsible dividing the files/massage into packet on the source computer. It is also responsible for reassembling the received packet at the destination computer. The IP (Internet Protocol) part is responsible for handling the address of destination computer so that each packet is routed to its proper destination.
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    How does internet work? At the source comp the message to be sent is broken down into small parts called packets. ' Each packet is given a serial no e.g. 1,2,3 All these packet are sent to the destination computer The destination comp receives the packets in random order( 10 may come before 1) The packets are reassembled in the order of their no and message is restored.
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    A server is a powerful computer with high speed and great processing capabilities. It can link other computer. Facilitates the sharing of data, s/w and h/w concepts. A server is any combination of hardware or software designed to provide services to clients. Nodes Refers to a computer that are attached to a network. A computer becomes a workstation of a network as soon as it is attached to a network. Client Request Server Response 9 Client/Server interaction Figure 15.1
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    Elementary Terminology of Networks NIU (Network Interface Unit) network interface unit is an interpreter that helps establish communication between the server and workstation. MAC address The MAC address refers to the physical address assigned by NIC manufacturer.
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    How data is transmitted across networks? Switching Techniques are used for transmitting data across networks. Three types of switching techniques are there. Circuit Switching Message Switching ' Packet Switching
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    Circuit Switching Physical connection between the two computers is established and then data is transmitted from source to destination computer. When a computer places a telephone call , the switching equipment within the telephone system seeks out a physical copper path from sender's to receiver's telephone. ' It sets up end-to-end connection between computers before any data can be sent. OR.1Gm-NODE DO-NODE
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    Message Switching The source comp sends the data to the switching office first which stores the data in its buffer. ' It then looks for a free link to another switching office and then sends the data to this office. Process is continued till the data is delivered to the destination computer. ' It is also known as store and forward technique.
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    Packet Switching There is a tight upper limit on the block size. In message switching there was no upper limit. A fixed size of packet is specified. All the packets are stored in main memory in switching office. In message switching packets are stored on disk. This increases the performance as access time is reduced.
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    LET'S REVISE Network: A collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. Node: A computer attached to a network. Server. A compu ter tha t facili tates sharing of data, software and hard ware resources on the network. Network Interface Unit (NIU): A device that helps to establish communication between the server and workstations. Circuit switching: A technique in which a dedicated and complete physical connection is established between two nodes for communica tion. Packet switching: A switching technique in which packets are routed between nodes over data links shared with other traffic. Personal Area Network (PAN): A computer network organized around an individual person. Local Area Network (LAN): A network in which the devices are connected over a relatively short distance. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A network which spans a physical area ( in the range of 5 and 50 km diameter) that is larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. Wide Area Network (WAN): A network which spans a large geographical area, often a country or a continent. Internet: It is a network of networks spread across the globe, all of which are connected to each other. Interspace: A client/server software program that allows multiple users to communicate online with real time audio, video and text chat in dynamic 3D environments. Channel: A medium that is used in the transmission of a message from one point to another. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies available for transmission of data.

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